Programma Flesh 8 Skachat
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Percentage (%) of participants who responded strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree or strongly disagree to questions measuring perceived access to animal-flesh food (AFF). Percentage (%) of respondents , 20; , 40; , 60
Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine how perceived food access (modelled as a binary predicting variable) were associated with food consumption. We computed the odds of low consumption, defined as less than once a day, as compared with once a day or more. We ran models separately for perceived assess to fruits and vegetables and for perceived assess to animal-flesh food and separately for maternal food consumption and for child food consumption, resulting in a total of four models.
Nine mothers did not provide answers for one or more perception questions about fruits and vegetables, and three mothers did not answer one or more questions about animal-flesh food. Values for these missing values were estimated with multiple imputation using a Markov Chain Monte Carlos method(28). Ten cycles of imputation were completed to estimate values for the missing covariates. Answers to other perception questions were used in the imputation procedures to predict values of the missing perception questions. We also conducted sensitivity analysis to obtain odd ratios for data without multiple imputation (n 189 for models assessing fruits and vegetables consumption, n 195 for models assessing animal-flesh food consumption).
Most mothers reported acquiring food from multiple sources. Over 80 % of the mothers purchased animal-flesh food, fruits and vegetables daily or weekly from wet markets and over 30 % purchased from street vendors on the daily or weekly basis. In addition, about 26 % of the mothers procured fruits and vegetables and 14 % acquired animal-flesh food from alternative sources, including growing food in the home gardens and catching fish from rivers. As compared with Siem Reap, Phnom Penh had a higher proportion of mothers who acquired fruits and vegetables from wet markets (919 % v. 768 %) and a lower proportion who acquired fruits and vegetables from the alternative sources (101 % v. 434 %). Similar results were found for animal-flesh food. In both cities, purchase from supermarkets was rare.
About 258 % and 263 % of the mothers reported low consumption of fruits and vegetables and low consumption of animal-flesh food (less frequent than once a day), respectively. In children, 359 % consumed fruits and vegetables less than once a day and 101 % did not consume at all while 338 % consumed animal-flesh food less frequent than once a day and 81 % did not consume this food group at all. There were no significant differences in fruits and vegetables consumption by city of residence. However, Siem Reap had a higher proportion of mothers with low animal-flesh food consumption (333 % v. 192 %). In contrast, Phnom Penh had a larger share of children who had low consumption (374 % v. 303 %) or did not consume animal-flesh food (121 % v. 40).
Our study contributes to the literature of urban nutrition by showing the correlation between perceived low food access and low animal-flesh food consumption in urban mothers and young children. One study conducted in urban Ethiopia also indicated the association between perceived affordability, but not perceived availability, with household consumption of meat and eggs(38). Prior studies about rural farming communities have also found similar associations, although they often used physical measures of food access like distance and travel time to food markets(5). A systematic review of these studies has indicated that the strength of the associations varied by context and depended on other factors like nutritional knowledge and farm production(5). In our study, the magnitude of the associations is large; for example, perceived low food access was associated with 563 times (95 % CI 254, 1246) and 434 times (95 % CI 220, 860) higher odds of low animal-flesh food consumption among mothers and children, respectively. In the study of Ethiopian urban dwellers, the odd ratios relating perceived food access and food consumption were also moderate to high, ranging between 17 and 54. Future work is needed to confirm the direction and the strength of the association between neighbourhood food access and dietary quality among urban mothers and young children.
The potential for poisoning of humans through their consumption of shellfish which have themselves consumed biotoxin producing marine phytoplankton exists in the UK. Toxins are bio-accumulated within the shellfish flesh allowing them to reach harmful concentrations. This threat is in most part mitigated by monitoring programmes that assess both the presence of potentially harmful phytoplankton and shellfish flesh toxicity. However, the medical profession in the UK remains relatively ignorant of the potential for biotoxin derived shellfish toxicity, preventing quantification of magnitude, frequency, and severity of health effects in the community or the medical significance of more recently discovered toxins. While the current causative species and their toxins are relatively well characterised there remains a lack of understanding of the factors governing the temporal and spatial appearance of harmful phytoplankton. Expansion of shellfish aquaculture is likely both worldwide and in the UK. Better understanding of how harmful phytoplankton interact with their environment to promote the sporadic harmful blooms that we observe is required to underpin risk assessments.
A variety of phytoplankton species in UK waters are responsible for the production of biotoxins. Filter feeding shellfish accumulate these toxins within their flesh, posing a risk to human health if they are consumed. Shellfish harvesting areas in UK waters are subject to closure due to the detection of high concentrations of toxins responsible for three shellfish poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Toxins associated with lipophilic shellfish toxins (LSTs) and spirolides have also been detected but pose less of a problem. In this short paper, based on the proceedings of a science/industry workshop "Relating Harmful Phytoplankton to Shellfish Poisoning and Human Health" held in October 2007, we summarise the status of shellfish toxins and human health in UK waters. Further information and references can be found in the full workshop report .
ASP is associated with diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Thirteen Pseudo-nitzschia species are present in UK waters [8, 9] but only P. australis and P. seriata are confirmed as toxin producers in Scottish waters  along with P. multiseries from English waters . ASP toxins accumulate in King Scallops resulting in extensive closures . However toxicity of wild scallops has effectively been mitigated by separation of the shellfish tissue and end product testing which allows non toxic parts of the scallop flesh to be marketed. Monitoring of other shellfish continues in the UK however closures due to high concentrations of ASP are rare in these shellfish.
Monitoring of shellfish flesh for the presence of toxins began in response to a PSP event in the North East of England in 1968 . However, during the 1990s, with the implementation of the EU Shellfish Hygiene Directive, monitoring expanded geographically also including phytoplankton cell counts. Phytoplankton analysis is performed weekly using the Utermöhl technique [9, 16] while toxicity analysis is performed on a weekly or monthly basis on a risk assessed basis . While toxicity is still detected in shellfish, regulatory monitoring has been generally successful in preventing contaminated product reaching the marketplace.
This report describes the findings of a three-year study on flesh-footed shearwater Puffinus carneipes biology in New Zealand. The project focus was specifically to describe population monitoring and to define the at-sea distribution and habitat use by flesh-footed shearwaters and the potential for foraging birds to interact with fisheries in different regions from their breeding sites. The study was based at three breeding sites in northern and central New Zealand: Lady Alice Island/Mauimua in Northland, Ohinau Island in the Coromandel, and Titi Island in Marlborough.
In addition, the research used marked study burrows at Lady Alice Island/Mauimua, and demographic data from this and Kauwahaia Island, Te Henga/Bethells Beach, West Auckland to explore the estimation of vital rates for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. An additional banded population of birds was established at Ohinau Island, to enable mark-recapture studies to be undertaken in the future.
The population sizes, nesting densities, and occupancy rates were estimated once for each of our study sites in the period 2012-2014. The colonies of flesh-footed shearwaters were mapped at each site.
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